Gastroenterologist is also a sub-specialty of internal medicine . a gastroenterologist deals with digestive system problems. They diagnose and treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. • ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) — a procedure to detect disorders in the ducts such as narrowing, gallstones, blockages, tumors and cysts. An ERCP combines the use of X-rays and endoscope — a long, flexible, lighted tube. The endoscope is advanced through the mouth and into the small bowel to view the common opening to the ducts from the liver and pancreas.
A contrast material is injected into the ducts so they can be seen on X-rays. Additional instruments are used to remove stones and or other blockages. Stents may be used to drain an area and open a narrowed area. • Sphincterotomy — abnormalities found during an ERCP study can sometimes be treated at the same time with an endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy (ERS), a procedure to cut the sphincter muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. Instruments are inserted through the endoscope to cut or stretch the sphincter.
• EUS (endoscopic ultrasound) — an ultrasound of the pancreas, transgastric or transduodenal, which helps define the size and relationship of masses to major structures and allows biopsy under radiologic guidance. ENDOCRINOLOGIST Endocrinologist is also a sub-specialty of internal medicine. This doctors treats people endocrine or glands problems. Glands are organs that produce and secretes hormones necessary to control and regulate bodily functions. Patients with thyroid problems are treated by endocrinologist.
An endocrinologist uses diagnostic tests for several reasons, including: • To measure the levels of various hormones in a patient’s body • To learn if the endocrine glands are working correctly • To determine the cause of an endocrinological problem • To confirm an earlier diagnosis • 24-Hour Urine Collection Test • ACTH Stimulation Test • Bone Density Test • CRH Stimulation Test • Dexamethasone Suppression Test • Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy • Five-Day Glucose Sensor Test (For Diabetes) PULMONOLOGIST.
A pulmonologist is a physician (MD, or DO degree) who specializes in the field of pulmonary medicine. Pulmonary medicine is a subspecialty of internal medicine. Pulmonary medicine, or pulmonologist, entails the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, conditions, and abnormalities of the lungs and cardio-pulmonary system. Pulmonologists treat breathing disorders, and may also specialize in some treatment of sleep disorders, severe allergies, and other lung conditions and diseases. Some pulmonologists may also sub specialize in critical care medicine, treating patients in the ICU.
Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for lung cancer have improved with advancing technology and the acquisition of the necessary skills by bronchoscopists to fully use these advanced techniques. Diagnostic and interventional procedures, including: • Bronchial Thermoplasty • Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy • Fiducial Marker Placement for Stereotactic Radiosurgery • Airway Stent Placement • Balloon Dilatation NEUROLOGIST A neurologist is a medical doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the nervous system, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles.
Neurologists help treat a wide range of disorders from headaches and learning disabilities to Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. If a patient suffers from medical issues such as headaches, concussion or a stroke, the neurologist will work closely with the patient’s primary care physician to decide on the optimal treatment plan. A neurological examination assesses motor and sensory skills, the functioning of one or more cranial nerves, hearing and speech, vision, coordination and balance, mental status, and changes in mood or behavior, among other abilities.
Items including a tuning fork, flashlight, reflex hammer, ophthalmoscope, and needles are used to help diagnose brain tumors, infections such as encephalitis and meningitis, and diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. HEMATOLOGIST-ONCOLOGIST A hematologist-oncologist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of blood diseases, especially blood cell cancers. This type of doctor is trained in hematology (the study of blood) and oncology (the study of cancer). Diagnoses and conditions treated Acquired hemostatic disorders and genetic disorders • Hemophilia.
• Hemophilia variants • Inhibitor patients • von Willebrand’s disease Anemia: Evaluation and treatment of anemias • Nutritional anemia • Genetic anemia • Sickle cell syndromes • Thalassemia syndromes • Enzyme defects • Membrane disorders • Immune disease • Anemia associated with other illness or infection RHEUMATOLOGISTS Rheumatologists treat arthritis, autoimmune diseases, pain disorders affecting joints, and osteoporosis. There are more than 200 types of these diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, lupus, back pain, osteoporosis, and tendinitis.
Some of these are very serious diseases that can be difficult to diagnose and treat. They treat soft tissue problems related to musculoskeletal system sports related soft tissue disorders and the specialty is also interrelated with physiotherapy, physical medicine and rehabilitation of disabled patients. Patient education programs and occupational therapy also go hand in hand with this specialty. Diagnosis both performed easy enough in a physical examination and, on the other hand, more complicated ones, often requiring a rheumatologist or other specialized physicians.
• Schober’s test tests the flexion of the lower back. • Multiple joint inspection • Musculoskeletal Examination o Screening Musculoskeletal Exam – a rapid assessment of structure and function o General Musculoskeletal Exam – a comprehensive assessment of joint inflammation o Regional Musculoskeletal Exam – focused assessments of structure, function and inflammation combined with special testing REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGIST A reproductive endocrinologist is a type of medical doctor who specializes in treating people with reproductive disorders.
Many infertile couples choose to see a reproductive endocrinologist when deciding upon fertility treatments. It is a reproductive endocrinologist’s job to identify factors involved in your infertility and appropriate methods with which to treat these factors. A reproductive endocrinologist is trained to manage a number of different problems related to the reproductive system. Reproductive endocrinologists deal with: • hormonal disorders • menstrual problems • infertility • pregnancy loss • sexual dysfunction • menopause Treatments
Reproductive endocrinologists can perform a wide variety of treatments for infertility. If you are facing infertility, your reproductive endocrinologist will first run a variety of fertility tests, in order to determine the cause of your fertility. Your reproductive endocrinologist can then suggest some appropriate treatments that may increase your chances of conceiving. Common treatments offered by reproductive endocrinologists include: • fertility drugs, like Clomid • infertility surgery • assisted reproductive therapy (ART).
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE SPECIALIST A preventive medicine specialist focuses on the health of individuals and defined populations to protect, promote, and maintain health and well-being as well as to prevent disease, disability, and premature death • Preventive medicine specialists are primarily responsible for conducting or assisting with preventive medicine inspections, surveys and preventative medicine laboratory procedures. They also supervise preventive medicine facilities or serve on preventive medicine staffs. OPHTHALMOLOGIST.
An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists. Ophthalmologists perform a variety of tasks related to the diagnosing and treatment of eye diseases. An ophthalmologist may perform routine eye exams in order to diagnose eye conditions and prescribe glasses or surgery. Surgical procedures performed by ophthalmologists include Laser vision surgery, cataract surgery, retinal disease surgery, and the treatment of glaucoma.
Ophthalmologists may specialize and treat in certain fields including corneal diseases, retina and vitreous diseases, glaucoma, pediatric eye problems, and plastic surgery. • Serious spinal cord injuries do not respond well to treatment. • Most injuries to the spinal cord result in loss of function and disability Spinal Cord Anatomy • Bones of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine [pic] • Front view of the spine and spinal cord [pic] • Cross sectional view [pic] • The conus medullaris is the end of the spinal cord in the back.
[pic] • The spinal cord ends in the lumbar spine at the level of L1 to L2 [pic] • The cauda equina is a bundle of nerves at the bottom of the spinal cord. [pic] o Nerves of the cauda equina supply the bladder, rectum, perineum, and legs. Treatment for a spinal cord injury may include a neck or back brace, intravenous fluids, corticosteroid medication, narcotic pain medication, surgery, and physical therapy. Specific treatment for a spinal cord injury may include: • Intravenous fluids [pic] • Corticosteroids for spinal cord injury: o Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol).
• Immobilization of the spine for spinal cord injury: o Neck collar o Neck brace o Back brace • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications for pain: [pic] o Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Ibuprin, Nuprin) o Naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn) o Ketoprofen (Oruvail, Orudis, Actron) • Narcotic pain medication [pic] • Bladder catheterization for spinal cord injury • Surgery for spinal cord injury: o To repair damage to the spine o To extract a foreign body [pic] • Rehabilitation for spinal cord injury • Physical therapy for spinal cord injury • Occupational therapy for spinal cord injury [pic].