22-micro

22-micro

The ability of a fungus to grow as a yeast or a mold depending on its environmental temperature is called

A. fungal virulence.

B. parasitism.

C. dimorphism.

D. dermatophytes.

E. opportunistic fungi.

C. dimorphism
The routes of entry for most fungi into the body are

A. urinary and reproductive.

B. digestive and respiratory.

C. blood and wounds.

D. respiratory and cutaneous.

E. None of the choices are correct.

D. respiratory and cutaneous
Amphotericin B, nystatin, and the imidazoles are all

A. mycotoxins.

B. fungal enzymes.

C. antifungal drugs.

D. culture media supplements for fungi.

E. None of the choices are correct.

C. antifungal drugs
All of the following are dimorphic, true fungal pathogens except

A. Candida.

B. Histoplasma.

C. Blastomyces.

D. Coccidioides.

E. Paracoccidioides.

A. Candida
The terms used for the four levels of fungal infection include the following, except

A. cutaneous.

B. bloodborne.

C. systemic.

D. subcutaneous.

E. superficial.

B. bloodborne
Characteristics of Histoplasma capsulatum include

A. it grows in moist soil, rich in nitrogen from bird and bat guano.

B. it is a yeast with a capsule.

C. it is a dermatophyte.

D. it grows in dry, arid soil.

E. None of the choices are correct.

A. it grows in moist soil, rich in nitrogen from bird and bat guano.
The highest incidence of histoplasmosis in the United States occurs in the

A. Southeast.

B. Southwest.

C. East and Midwest.

D. Northeast.

E. Rocky Mountains.

C. East and Midwest
Which is incorrect about histoplasmosis?

A. pathogen grows inside macrophages

B. transmitted by inhalation of spores

C. respiratory infections range from mild to severe

D. chronic cases have symptoms similar to tuberculosis

E. never spreads to sites outside the respiratory tract

E. never spreads to sites outside the respiratory tract
All of the following pertain to coccidioidomycosis, except

A. the pathogen grows best in soil with bird and bat guano.

B. fungomas occur in the lungs of those infected

C. it is transmitted by inhalation of arthrospores.

D. it often has symptoms of fever, chest pain, cough, headache, malaise.

E. it is also called Valley Fever.

A. the pathogen grows best in soil with bird and bat guano.
Blastomyces dermatitidis

A. causes Gilchrist disease and Chicago disease.

B. is transmitted by skin contact with fomites.

C. is a dermatophyte.

D. usually enters through the gastrointestinal tract

E. All of the choices are correct.

A. causes Gilchrist disease and Chicago disease
11. Paracoccidioides is

A. a superficial mycosis.

B. endemic to regions of Central and South America.

C. only seen in immunocompromised patients.

D. also known as Valley Fever.

E. All of the choices are correct.

B. endemic to regions of Central and South America.
Which is incorrect about Sporothrix schenckii?

A. is dimorphic

B. lives in the soil

C. often transmitted by soil-contaminated thorns

D. causes superficial cutaneous infection

E. causes nodules along regional lymphatic channels

D. causes superficial cutaneous infection
Chromoblastomycosis

A. is caused by saprobes with dark-pigmented mycelia and spores.

B. is caused by dimorphic fungi.

C. is a systemic infection.

D. is a serious respiratory tract infection.

E. has a peak incidence in Alaska.

A. is caused by saprobes with dark-pigmented mycelia and spores.
Mycetoma is

A. a subcutaneous infection that looks like a tumor.

B. also called athlete’s foot.

C. caused by dermatophytes.

D. only seen in the Midwest.

E. All of the choices are correct.

A. a subcutaneous infection that looks like a tumor.
Dermatophytoses are

A. fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails.

B. also called ringworm.

C. also called tineas.

D. often time-consuming to eradicate completely.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.
Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton

A. produce tissue-damaging mycotoxins.

B. all cause athlete’s foot.

C. reservoirs are humans, animals, and soils.

D. frequently cause septicemia.

E. are dimorphic fungi.

C. reservoirs are humans, animals, and soils
Which is mismatched?

A. Tinea capitis – ringworm of the beard

B. Tinea pedis – ringworm of the foot

C. Tinea cruis – ringworm of the groin

D. Tinea corporis – ringworm of the body

E. Tinea unguium – ringworm of the nails

A. Tinea capitis – ringworm of the beard
Transmission of tineas include

A. human to human

B. animal to human

C. soil to human

D. fomites to human

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct
Which is incorrect about tinea versicolor?

A. It is a superficial mycosis.

B. It is often transmitted by fomites.

C. It is caused by the yeast Malassezia furfur.

D. It causes disruption of skin pigmentation resulting in a mottled appearance.

E. It occasionally causes systemic infections in compromised patients.

B. It is often transmitted by fomites.
All of the following pertain to Candida albicans, except

A. opportunistic yeast.

B. low numbers found in the mouth, intestines, genitalia, and skin.

C. has a large capsule.

D. infections often arise from an endogenous source.

E. persistent moist skin influences infection.

C. has a large capsule
Which is incorrect about chromoblastomycosis?

A. it is characterized by highly visible verrucous lesions

B. treatment is with pentamidine

C. its etiological agent are soil saprobes with dark-pigmented mycelia and spores.

D. sclerotic cells are produced

E. it is frequently confused with yaws, cancer, and syphilis.

B. treatment is with pentamidine
Alternative names for Blastomyces dermatitidis include

A. Gilchrist’s disease.

B. Valley fever.

C. Rose Gardener’s disease.

D. Teapicker’s lung.

E. Farmer’s lung.

A. Gilchrist’s disease
Which of the following are likely to predispose patients to fungal infections?

A. cancer

B. AIDS

C. tuberculosis

D. malnutrition

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.
Which antifungal drug inhibits cell division of the fungus?

A. ketoconazole (Nizoral)

B. fluconazole

C. terbinafine (Lamisil)

D. amphotericin B

E. griseofulvin

E. griseofulvin
The primary portal of entry for fungal infections is

A. the urinary tract.

B. through skin.

C. the respiratory tract.

D. the nervous system.

E. the digestive system.

C. the respiratory tract.
Which of the following is incorrect about Sporotrichosis?

A. It is also known as Valley fever.

B. Humans and other mammals are susceptible.

C. Heat packs applied to skin lesions can resolve some infections.

D. A prick of a thorn is the classic mode of infection.

E. The sporotrichin skin test can be used to determine prior infection.

A. It is also known as Valley fever
All of the following are fungal allergies, except

A. bark stripper’s disease.

B. farmer’s lung.

C. teapicker’s lung.

D. thrush.

D. thrush
Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci

A. has protozoan and fungal characteristics.

B. lacks ergosterol in its plasma membrane.

C. is an obligate parasite.

D. causes serious infection in elderly, premature infants, and AIDS patients.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct
This organism commonly contaminates grains, corn, and peanuts and produces a potent mycotoxin called aflatoxin:

A. Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci

B. Fusarium species

C. Rhizopus species

D. Geotrichum candidum

E. Aspergillus flavis

E. Aspergillus flavis
Ergotism is caused by

A. ingesting Amanita phalloides, the death-angel mushroom.

B. ingesting aflatoxin.

C. inhaling Stachybotrys spores and toxins.

D. ingesting alkaloids from Claviceps purpurea on rye plants.

E. inhaling Rhizopus spores.

D. ingesting alkaloids from Claviceps purpurea on rye plants.
Menthol and camphor (VicksTM) are effective treatments against

A. chromoblastomycosis.

B. ringworm.

C. Histoplasmosis.

D. tinea versicolor.

E. blastomycosis.

B. ringworm
All of the following areas are subject to intertriginous infections, except

A. between folds of the groin.

B. under breasts.

C. in the armpit.

D. behind the knees.

E. chest.

E. chest
Decaying vegetation, such as piles of leaves and compost matter, allows growth and transmission of

A. Cryptococcus.

B. Aspergillus.

C. Candida.

D. Dermatophytes.

E. Pneumocytis.

B. Aspergillus.
Serious mycoses treated with amphotericin B include all the following, except

A. zygomycosis.

B. invasive aspergillosis.

C. Pneumocystis pneumonia.

D. coccidioidomycosis.

E. histoplasmosis.

C. Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Aspergillosis includes all the following, except

A. there are no effective drugs to treat the infection.

B. noninvasive infections of the eyelids, sinuses, conjunctiva, and ear canals.

C. a pneumonia that disseminates to the brain.

D. most cases are due to A. fumigatus.

E. life-threatening infections in AIDS, leukemia, and transplant patients.

A. there are no effective drugs to treat the infection
This opportunist is the most frequent cause of life-threatening pneumonia in AIDS patients:

A. Cryptococcus neoformans

B. Candida albicans

C. Malassezia furfur

D. Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci

E. None of the choices are correct.

D. Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci
Oral thrush is caused by

A. Cryptococcus neoformans.

B. Candida albicans.

C. Malassezia furfur.

D. Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci.

E. None of the choices are correct.

B. Candida albicans.
Cryptococcosis can include

A. pulmonary infection.

B. septicemia.

C. meningitis.

D. bone infection.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.
Candidiasis includes

A. intertriginous infection of skin sites.

B. vulvovaginal infection.

C. oral cavity and esophageal infections.

D. skin and nail infections.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.
Cryptococcus neoformans has the following characteristics, except

A. commonly found in the human mouth, intestines, and genitalia

B. a capsulated yeast

C. in high numbers in soil containing pigeon droppings

D. usually enters body by inhalation

E. primarily infects patients with AIDS, cancer, and diabetes

A. commonly found in the human mouth, intestines, and genitalia

David from Healtheappointments

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