2.3 Life With Diabetes

How does life with Type 1 diabetes compare to life with Type 2 diabetes?
1) type 1 is diagnosed young
2) type 2 you can fix
3) both don’t produce the right kind/ any insulin

When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, what changes would one have to make in lifestyle?
Track what you consume.

When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, what changes would one have to make in diet?
Have to have a somewhat strict diet and can’t consume as much glucose.

Describe the importance of checking blood sugar for a diabetic.
To make sure your blood sugar doesn’t raise too high.

Explain the role that exercise plays in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.
You need the proper amount of insulin to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

Describe what happened to the model cell that was submerged in a low glucose solution for 20 minutes.
The model cell would get bigger because water comes in and moves glucose out.

Explain why hospitals use saline solutions to hydrate patients instead of distilled water.
To provide sodium and water.

How does preventing a diabetic emergency affect the day to day life of a diabetic?
They know that they won’t be in trouble.

What special considerations do they have to make as they go on about their day?
To think about what they’re eating.

Explain how having an insulin pump may decrease the chance of a diabetic having a diabetic emergency?
If the insulin decreased, the pump will prevent having a diabetic emergency.

Explain how diabetes can affect two other human body systems.
1) Heart: high blood glucose levels lead to complications like heart disease, stroke which leads to death.
2) Nerves: if blood glucose levels stay high for a while, the blood vessels feed the nerves can become damaged.

Explain why people with poorly controlled diabetes are at risk for amputation.
Because their disease could become so terrible that there’s nothing to save it.

Example for short term and long term complications of diabetes.
short term: hypoglycemia diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
long term: retinopathy

Describe at least two potential scenarios where Anna’s diabetes contributed to her death.
1) Her oral health problems- having cavities, plaque, and severely receding gums.
2) Her eye complications- eyes being cloudy (cataracts), blood vessels in both eyes were swollen (glaucoma), and the abnormal blood vessels that were on her left retina (retinopathy).

Cardiovascular
Hyperglycemia is a disorder of the ___________________ system

hypoglycemia
hypoglycemia
The scientific word for low blood sugar

kidneys
kidneys
These organs filter the blood and are damaged by diabetes

urinary
Renal or kidney failure is a disorder of this system

neuropathy
neuropathy
The scientific term for nerve disease

legs
legs
PAD (or peripheral artery disease) most affects your (brain, arms, legs?)

nervous
Stroke is a disorder that primarily affects which system?

hypertension
The scientific term for high blood pressure

oral
oral
The scientific word for something related to the mouth is ________

gastroparesis
When the vagus nerve is damaged and digestion is slowed, it is called _____________

fats
fats
When our bodies burn ____________, it produces ketones

urine
urine
Ketones are typically detected in one’s ____________

ketoacidosis
ketoacidosis
Causes blood to become acidic and leads to vomiting, nausea, etc

nerves
nerves
Hearing loss is due to damage of the _______________ that lead to and from the ear (and connect it to the brain)

integumentary
integumentary
Skin is part of the ________________ system

List 6 symptoms of hyperglycemia
excessive thirst
excessive urination
increased urination at night
fatigue

Symptoms of hypoglycemia
Hungry
Shaky trembling
Rapid Heart Rate
Sweaty, Cold, Clammy Skin
Pale grey Skin
Headache
Dizzy
Unsteady

Polyuria
frequent urination

Polydipsia
frequent thirst

What are several ways the life of someone with diabetes is impacted by the disorder?
physically
– change in diet
– manage blood sugar by monitoring
– count carbs
– exercise
– more time w/ doctor

emotionally
– mood swings
– cravings
– pain inflicted on oneself

How do the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia relate to diabetes?
hyperglycermia – too much blood sugar
Causes –
If type 1, not enough insulin.
If type 2, enough insulin, but not as effective
ate more o/ exercised less than planned.
stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu.

Signs –
High blood glucose
High levels of sugar in the urine
Frequent urination
Increased thirst

Inject glucagon.

hypoglycemia – too low blood sugar
Signs –
Shakiness
Nervousness or anxiety
Sweating, chills and clamminess
Irritability or impatience
Confusion, including delirium
Rapid/fast heartbeat
Lightheadedness or dizziness
Hunger and nausea
Sleepiness
Blurred/impaired vision
Tingling or numbness in the lips or tongue
Headaches
Weakness or fatigue
Anger, stubbornness, or sadness
Lack of coordination
Nightmares or crying out during sleep
Seizures
Unconsciousness

Eat something sweet to balance.

What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar?
the water will be displaced to the high sugar concentration and the cells will shrivel up

What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?
Type 1 – insulin injections, insulin pump

Type 2 – lifestyle changes *exercise, counting carbs*, oral meds
(insulin may become necessary over time)

What is the importance of checking blood sugar levels for a diabetic?
To keep as close to normal as possible to prevent medical emergencies *insulin injections, apple juice*
Hypoglycemia o/ hyperglycemia can occur
*fail to treat ketoacidosis*
minimize long term consequences
Tells you when to take insulin
To feel happier

How can an insulin pump help a diabetic?
more exact, less responsibility on the diabetic, insulin is always available on demand, continuous monitoring of BS levels, no self harm, easier to maintain, regulating insulin mimics homeostasis

How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ?
Type 1 – no insulin, ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia
Type 2 – not enough insulin or the body is insulin resistant, high blood pressure, PAD

What are potential short and long term complications of diabetes?
Short term – ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, honey urine, high blood pressure

Long term – neurosis, nephropathy, necrosis, gangrene, amputation

Hemogoblin A1c
A test that measures the level of hemogobin A1c in the blood so as to determine the average blood sugar concentrations for the preceding 2 to 3 months

Hyperglycemia
An excess of sugar in the blood.

Hypertonic
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.

Hypoglycemia
Abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood.

Hypotonic
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a lower solute concentration.

Isotonic
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.

Osmosis
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.

Solution
A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Solvent
The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.

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