1. Pharmacology Chapter 1

Define drug
any chemical that can affect living processes

Define pharmacology
the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems

Define clinical pharmacology
the study of drugs in humans

Define therapeutics
also known as pharmacotherapeutics the use of drugs to diagnose prevent or treat diseases or prevent pregancy (medical use of drugs)

what properties would the ideal drug have?
effectiveness, safety, selectitvity, reversible action, predictability, ease of administration, freedom from drug interation, low cost, chemical stability, possession of a simple generic name

Is there a perfect drug

what are the three most important characteristic that any drug can have?
effectiveness, safety, and selectivity

what is effectiveness?
a drug that elicits the repsonses for which it is given

what is the most important property a drug can have?

US law requires that all new drugs be proved ________ prior to release for marketing

Define a safe drug
one that cannot produce harmful effects even if administered in very high doses andd for a very long time

How can we reduce the chances of producing adverse effects ?
by proper drug selection and proper dosing

what does the greek word pharmakon mean

Define selectivity
one that elicits only the response for which it is given it should not produce side effects

Is there a selective drug?
NO all medications have side effects

In addition to convenience, ease of administration has two other benifits what are they?
it can enhcance patient adhearance and it can decrease administration errors

Is there a drug that is free from significant interactions with other drugs or foods
Yes, but there are few medicines devoid of significant interactions

Define chemical stability
some drugs lose effectiveness during storage or when put into a solution

What is the objective of drug therapy
to provide maximum benefit with minimum harm

Our ultimate concern when administering a drug is what
the intensity of the response

what determines the intensity of the response to a drug
the concentration of a drug at its sites of action

what is the primary determinant of the concentration of a drug at its sites of action
the administered dose

Dosage size and the route and timing of administration are important determants of
drug responses

toxicity results from the dosage being
too high

treatment failure results from the dosage being
too low

how can you help to minimize errors caused by poor adherence
give patients complete instruction about their medication and how to take it

Define pharmacokinetics
a process that determines how much of an administered dose gets to its site of action

what are the four major pharmacokinetic processes
drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion together these processes can be thought of as the impact of the body on drugs

Pharmacodynamic processes determine what
the nature and intensity of the response

pharmacodynamics can be thought of as what
the impact of drugs on the body

sources of individual variation incude
drug interactions, physiologic variables( age, gender, weight), pathologic variables( kidney and liver function) , and genetic variables

genetic variables can alter
metabolism of drugs an can predispose the patient to unique drug reactions

is defined as any chemical that can affect living processes Drug Due to the definition of a drug, virtually all ____ can be considered drugs since when exposure is sufficiently high, all ____ will have an effect on life. Chemical …

Process by which the body takes in or receives a drug Absorption Action by which a drug is released throughout the body Distribution WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Pharmacology The study of drugs , action and effects in living body systems. Pharmacokinetics how drugs interact with and affect biological systems .physiologic/biochemical response of body to the drug WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

What is pharmacology ? The broad scince of the orgin, mature, chemistry, effects and uses of drugs What is clinical pharmacology? The study of the biological effects of a drug used in a medical treatment and the actions of a …

Drug chemical that interacts with an organism to alter its function, show biolgoical processes and provide methods of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease Pharmacology the study of the interaction of drugs with an organism WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Additive effects drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1+1=2) compare with synergistic effects Adverse …

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