01 – Introduction to Pharmacology

absorption
The process of drug movement into the systemic circulation.

adverse effects
Harmful effects.

affinity
Attractive force.

agonist
A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a stimulatory response that is similar to what an endogenous substance (such as a hormone) would have done if it were bound to the receptor.

anaphylactic shock
Sudden and severe allergic reaction that may be life threatening.

antagonist
A drug or another agent that blocks or antagonizes the effects of another substance or function.

bioavailability
The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration.

biotransformation
The process of conversion of drugs.

conjugation
The combination of substances with gulcuronic or sulfuric acid, terminating biologic activity and making them ready for excretion.

dissolution
The process of dissolving.

distribution
The passage of an agent through blood or lymph to various body sites.

dose-effect relationship
The relationship between the dose of a drug (or other agent) that produces therapeutic effects and the potency of the effects on the person. Aka – dose-response relationship.

excretion
The last stage of pharmacokinetics that removes drugs from the system.

first-pass effect
After the drug is in the liver, it is partly metabolized before being sent to the body, where systemic effects occur.

half-life
(t ½) The time taken for the blood or plasma concentration of the drug to decrease from full to one-half (50%).

hydrolysis
The cleaving of a compound into simpler compounds with the uptake of the hydrogen and hydroxide parts of a water molecule.

idiosyncratic
Something peculiar to an individual.

metabolism
The sum of chemical and physical changes in the tissues, consisting of anabolism and catabolism.

overdose
A toxic dose of the drug that causes harm.

oxidation
Combination with oxygen.

pharmacodynamics
The biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and mechanisms of drug action (the effects of a drug on the body or organism).

pharmacognosy
The study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources.

pharmacokinetics
The study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation (metabolism), and excretion of drugs.

pharmacology
The study of drugs, including their action and effects in living body systems.

pharmacotherapeutics
The study of how drugs may be best used in the treatment of illnesses and which drug is most or lease appropriate to use for a specific disease.

presystemic metabolism
Occurs when enzymes in the GI tract begin to break down the drug before it is absorbed.

receptor
The cell recipient, usually a specific protein, situated either in cell membranes on cell surfaces or within the cellular cytoplasm.

reduction
A reaction with a substance that involves the gaining of electrons.

side effects
Effects not necessarily intended. They are usually (but not always) undesirable.

therapeutic
Effects meant to treat a disease or disorder.

tolerance
The development of resistance to the effects of a drug such that the drug’s doses must be continually raised to elicit the desired response.

toxicity
The state of being noxious and refers to a drug’s ability to poison the body.

toxicology
The study of poisons and poisonings.

contraindication
A reason that makes it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug.

synergism
The combined effect of two drugs.

potentiation
An interaction between two drugs that causes an effect greater than that which would have been expected.

cumulative effect
Poor metabolism or excretion of a drug leads to a build-up of the drug in the body.

polypharmacy
The act or practice of prescribing too many medicines.

opposition
Occurs when two drugs with opposing actions interact, reducing the effectiveness of one or both.

alteration
How the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, or excretes a drug.

uticaria
Vascular reaction of the skin characterized by a rash and severe itching.

pruritus
Itching.

medicine (medication)
Drugs mixed in a formulation with other ingredients to improve the stability, taste, or physical form to allow appropriate adminitration of the active drug.

ADR
adverse drug reaction

Dose response curve shows the relationship between the drug response and the dose Free drug compared to drugs that are protein bound, molecules that can produce a pharmacologic effect WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Absorption refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of the drug and its formation. Refers to the passage of drug molecules from the site of administration into the circulation. Active …

What does it mean that DR interactions are concentration dependent? It means that as the concentration of the drug increases the % of receptors bound increases What does it mean the DR interactions are saturable? At a certain concentration 100% …

Pharmaceutical Dosage regimen Pharmacokinetics What body does to drug ADME WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Pharmacodynamics What drugs do to d body -molecular -biohrmical -physiolohical =effects …

Pharmacokinetics Absorption–>Distribution–>Metabolism–>Excretion Absorption The movement of drug from site of administration to various tissues of the body. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Distribution The movement of …

agonists medication that binds to the receptor site and stimulates the function of that site; drug that mimics a function of the body. antagonists medication that binds at receptor sites to prevent other medication from binding to those same sites. …

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